In recent years, achievement has become an increasingly important concept in the field of psychology. Achievement can be defined as the successful completion of a task or the attainment of a desired outcome (Gagne, 2003). It is considered to be an important motive for human behavior because it is a way of providing the individual with a sense of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977). Achievement can be divided into two main categories: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic achievement is motivated by internal rewards such as a sense of accomplishment or satisfaction, while extrinsic achievement is motivated by external rewards such as money or recognition (Harter, 1981).
Previous research on achievement has focused on various factors that influence the level of achievement. These include the individual’s level of ability, motivation, and effort (Gagne, 2003). Ability is the capacity to perform a task or reach an outcome. Motivation is a factor that drives an individual to strive for success. Effort is the amount of work put into achieving a task or outcome (Gagne, 2003).
Recent research has sought to identify the factors that lead to higher levels of achievement. One key factor is goal setting. Setting goals is an important part of the achievement process as it provides an individual with a clear focus and direction (Locke & Latham, 2002). Another factor is self-regulation. Self-regulation is the ability to monitor and adjust behavior in order to reach a goal (Carver & Scheier, 2001).
In addition, there is evidence to suggest that certain personality traits can influence the level of achievement. For example, research has found that individuals who are conscientious and have a growth mindset are more likely to achieve success (Dweck, 2006). Conscientious individuals are organized and diligent in their work, while those with a growth mindset are open to new experiences and challenges.
Finally, research suggests that the environment in which an individual is working can have a significant impact on their level of achievement. A supportive and encouraging environment can increase an individual’s motivation and effort, while an unsupportive environment can lead to feelings of frustration and discouragement (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
In conclusion, achievement is an important concept in psychology, and there are various factors that can influence the level of success an individual achieves. These include ability, motivation, effort, goal setting, self-regulation, personality traits, and the environment in which the individual is working. Further research is needed to better understand the complex interplay between these factors and their impact on achievement.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2001). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Random House.
Gagne, F. (2003). Achievement motivation: Concepts, principles, and applications. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developmental Psychology, 17, 300-312.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.