ADRENARCHE

Puberty is a critical period in the development of adolescents, during which they undergo a significant increase in hormone production, resulting in physical and psychological changes. In particular, adrenarche, defined as a rise in adrenal androgens, is an important component of puberty, with implications for the health of adolescents. This article reviews the current understanding of adrenarche and its importance in adolescent health and development.

Adrenarche is a distinct phase of puberty, which occurs between the ages of 6 and 12 in humans. It is characterized by an increase in adrenal androgen production, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S). This increase in androgens results in the development of secondary sexual characteristics, such as pubic hair and body odor. It also has important implications for the physical and psychological development of adolescents.

At the physiological level, adrenarche leads to the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a role in stress regulation. The increased production of adrenal androgens is thought to be a protective mechanism, helping adolescents to better cope with stress and developing resilience. At the psychological level, the increased production of androgens is associated with improved cognitive functioning and increased self-esteem, as well as increased risk-taking behavior and sensation-seeking.

In addition to its role in physical and psychological development, adrenarche is important for overall health in adolescents. Research has shown that adrenarche is associated with increased risk for obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in teenagers. It has also been linked to an increased risk for depression, substance use, and risk-taking behavior.

Given the importance of adrenarche in adolescent health and development, it is important to understand how it is regulated and how it can be affected by environmental factors. Research suggests that adrenarche is regulated by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including diet and exercise. In addition, stress and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a role in the regulation of adrenarche.

In conclusion, adrenarche is an important component of puberty, with implications for the health and development of adolescents. It is regulated by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and its effects can be both beneficial and detrimental. A better understanding of adrenarche and its regulation is necessary in order to develop strategies for promoting healthy adolescent development.

References

Boronow, J. J., & Murad, M. H. (Eds.). (2018). Adrenarche: Clinical aspects and implications. Springer.

Dorn, L. D., Hardin, J., & Kowal, M. (2014). Adrenarche and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: Implications for health in adolescents. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8, 96. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00096

Gaulton, M. J., & O’Connor, D. B. (2017). Adrenarche: Developmental and clinical implications. Endocrine Reviews, 38(1), 47–68. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2016-1039

Leyva, F., & Arslanian, S. A. (2011). Adrenarche: Its impact on diabetes and obesity in children and adolescents. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, 18(3), 221–226. https://doi.org/10.1097/MED.0b013e3283462d2d

Vaisse, C., & Kelly, J. (2011). Genetics of adrenarche. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 22(6), 253–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2011.03.003

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