Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. It is a multi-disciplinary field that encompasses a broad array of topics, including population dynamics, energy and nutrient flows, and community dynamics. Ecological research is important for understanding and managing the effects of human activities on the environment, and for preserving and restoring natural ecosystems.

In its broadest sense, ecology is the study of how organisms interact with their environment. This includes both abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors. Abiotic factors include climate, soil, and water. Biotic factors include predators, prey, competitors, and mutualists. Ecologists study these interactions on a variety of levels, including individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

The study of ecology can help us to better understand and manage the environment. For example, by understanding the interactions between species, ecologists can help to identify and conserve areas of high biodiversity. They can also help to identify and prevent pollution sources, as well as develop methods for restoring damaged ecosystems. In addition, ecologists can help to develop strategies for sustainable resource use.

Ecology is a complex field, and many of its principles are still being developed. There is much to be learned about the connections between organisms and their environment, and much to be gained from continued research.


Borger, L. (2020). What Is Ecology?. Retrieved from

Dale, V. H., Joyce, L. A., McNulty, S., Neilson, R. P., Ayres, M. P., Flannigan, M. D., … & Peterson, C. J. (2005). Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience, 55(7), 501-511.

Hedges, L. V., Gurevitch, J., & Curtis, P. S. (2001). The meta-analysis of response ratios in experimental ecology. Ecology, 82(4), 1189-1202.

Lawton, J. H. (1995). What do species do in ecosystems?. Oikos, 73(3), 4-16.

Naeem, S., & Wright, J. P. (2003). Disentangling biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: deriving solutions to a seemingly insurmountable problem. Ecology letters, 6(8), 567-579.

Scroll to Top