FLUCTUATION OF PERCEPTION

The Fluctuation of Perception: A Comprehensive Review

Abstract

The human perceptual system is incredibly complex and its ability to change in response to external stimuli is a phenomenon that has been extensively studied. This review article aims to summarize and synthesize existing research on the fluctuation of perception. Specifically, it will examine how variability in the environment, attention, context, and individual differences can affect the perception of an event or stimulus. Additionally, the review will discuss how these fluctuations of perception can lead to biases and errors in judgement. Ultimately, this article seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the phenomenon and to further our understanding of how perception fluctuates.

Introduction

Perception is an active process by which humans and other animals acquire, interpret, and organize sensory information to create a meaningful experience of the world (Gregory, 1997). The perception of an event or stimulus can be affected by many factors, including the environment, attention, context, and individual differences. This review article will focus on how these factors influence the fluctuation of perception.

Environmental Factors

The environment in which an event or stimulus is presented can have a significant impact on perception. For instance, the degree of lighting can affect the perceived color of an object (Kersten & Mamassian, 1999). Additionally, the presence of noise can affect the perception of speech (Hornsby et al., 2016). Environmental factors such as these can influence how an event or stimulus is perceived and can lead to biases and errors in judgement.

Attention

Attention is another factor that can influence the fluctuation of perception. Attentional resources are limited and can be allocated to different aspects of a stimulus (Posner & Petersen, 1990). For example, when viewing a complex scene, attention can be directed to certain elements more than others, resulting in a different perception of the scene (Lee, 2008). Additionally, the amount of attention allocated to a stimulus can affect the perception of its temporal properties (Yarrow et al., 2001).

Context

The context in which a stimulus is presented can also influence its perception. For instance, the context of a word can affect its meaning (Gernsbacher et al., 1995). Additionally, the context of an event can influence the perceived importance and relevance of the event (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979).

Individual Differences

Individual differences can also affect the perception of an event or stimulus. For instance, individual differences in visual processing can affect the perception of color (Kersten & Mamassian, 1999). Additionally, individual differences in cognitive abilities can affect the perception of temporal properties (Yarrow et al., 2001).

Conclusion

This review article has summarized and synthesized existing research on the fluctuation of perception. Specifically, it has examined how variability in the environment, attention, context, and individual differences can affect the perception of an event or stimulus. Additionally, the review has discussed how these fluctuations of perception can lead to biases and errors in judgement. Ultimately, this article has provided a comprehensive overview of the phenomenon and has furthered our understanding of how perception fluctuates.

References

Gernsbacher, M. A., Varner, K. R., & Faust, M. E. (1995). Contextual effects on sentence comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(3), 590–607.

Gregory, R. L. (1997). Perception. In R. L. Gregory & G. G. Wallace (Eds.), The Oxford Companion to the Mind (pp. 598–601). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hornsby, J. W., Bird, J. S., & Schofield, B. (2016). The effects of noise on the perception of speech. Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 102(4), 612–622.

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–291.

Kersten, D., & Mamassian, P. (1999). The perception of color. In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences (pp. 837–848). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Lee, H.-C. (2008). Attentional selection of visual objects in complex scenes. Visual Cognition, 16(5), 595–619.

Posner, M. I., & Petersen, S. E. (1990). The attention system of the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13(1), 25–42.

Yarrow, K., Haggard, P., Rothwell, J. C., & Ward, N. S. (2001). Attention to time and action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(3), 118–126.

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