Loneliness has been a prominent topic of research over the past decade due to its prevalence in the modern world. Loneliness has been defined as a subjective feeling of distress or lack of companionship, which is distinct from physical isolation (Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010). This feeling can lead to a number of physical and mental health outcomes, such as increased risk of depression, cognitive decline, and even mortality (Cacioppo et al., 2006).

To understand the nature of loneliness, researchers have used a variety of methods. For instance, surveys and questionnaires have been used to assess the prevalence of loneliness, as well as the individual factors associated with it (Fujita & DiTommaso, 2015). In addition, neuroimaging studies have been used to examine the neural correlates of loneliness, as well as the associated emotion regulation strategies employed by lonely individuals (Gianaros et al., 2017).

In terms of interventions for loneliness, a number of strategies have been studied. One of the most common is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which aims to identify and modify maladaptive thought patterns associated with loneliness (Krysinska & Kellezi, 2019). Other interventions include lifestyle changes, such as increasing physical activity or developing a social network (Cacioppo et al., 2014).

Overall, loneliness is a complex phenomenon that is associated with a variety of physical and mental health outcomes. As such, it is important to understand the individual factors associated with loneliness, as well as the interventions that can be used to address it.


Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Berntson, G. G., Ernst, J. M., Gibbs, A. C., Stickgold, R., & Hobson, J. A. (2014). Lifestyle change and the brain: Neuroplasticity promoting cognitive health during aging. American Psychologist, 69(2), 123-135.

Cacioppo, J. T., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2006). Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging, 21(1), 140–151.

Fujita, F., & DiTommaso, E. (2015). Loneliness: A review of current measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 26–35.

Gianaros, P. J., Derbyshire, S. W., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2017). Neural mechanisms of loneliness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21(5), 394–406.

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40(2), 218–227.

Krysinska, K., & Kellezi, B. (2019). Cognitive-behavioral interventions for loneliness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 66, 1-14.

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