The scientific method is an iterative process of hypothesis-driven investigation used to gain knowledge and understanding of natural phenomena. This method is used extensively in scientific disciplines, such as biology, chemistry, physics, and psychology, to test hypotheses and generate new knowledge. The scientific method consists of four main components: observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and conclusion.


Observation is the first step in the scientific method. By observing the natural world, scientists can identify patterns or problems that need further investigation. Observations may be qualitative (descriptive) or quantitative (measured). For example, a scientist may observe a species of plants that is declining in population, or they may measure the average temperature of a lake over time.


After observations have been made, the next step in the scientific method is to develop a hypothesis, or an educated guess, about the phenomenon in question. A hypothesis is a testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables. For example, a scientist may hypothesize that increasing temperatures in a lake are responsible for the decline in the species of plants.


The third step in the scientific method is experimentation, or testing the hypothesis. Experiments are designed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. In the example above, the scientist would conduct experiments to determine if increased temperatures are indeed the cause of the plant decline.


The final step in the scientific method is to draw conclusions based on the data from the experiments. If the data supports the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is accepted. If the data does not support the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected. The conclusion is then used to make predictions about how the phenomenon may behave in the future.


Bard, P. (n.d.). The Scientific Method. Retrieved from

Khan Academy. (n.d.). The scientific method. Retrieved from

McLeod, S. (2020). Scientific Method. Retrieved from

University of Washington. (n.d.). The Scientific Method. Retrieved from

Scroll to Top