Nonconformity is an important area of research in the study of human behavior. The term “nonconformity” refers to a variety of behaviors that may be seen as deviant, including those that violate social norms, break laws, or challenge authority. Nonconformity can include behaviors such as vandalism, substance abuse, and civil disobedience. It can also involve personal beliefs or attitudes that are different from those held by the majority. Research on nonconformity has focused on the causes and consequences of nonconformity as well as ways to reduce it.

The causes of nonconformity are complex and vary depending on the specific behavior. Generally, nonconformity is associated with a lack of social control, including a lack of parental supervision, peer influence, and community norms. Other factors such as low self-esteem, poverty, and mental health problems can also contribute to nonconformity. Further, nonconformity can be seen as a reaction to perceived injustice or inequality in society, or as a means of self-expression.

The consequences of nonconformity are also complex and can vary depending on the type of behavior. Generally, nonconformity can lead to negative outcomes, such as criminal penalties, social stigma, or exclusion from certain activities. It can also lead to positive outcomes, such as increased self-esteem and a sense of autonomy.

There are a number of strategies that can be used to reduce nonconformity. These include increasing parental supervision, providing positive role models, developing strong peer networks, and creating positive social norms. Other strategies include improving access to education and employment opportunities, as well as providing mental health services.

In conclusion, nonconformity is an important area of research that has implications for both individual and societal outcomes. Research has focused on the causes and consequences of nonconformity as well as strategies that can be used to reduce it. Further research is needed in this area to better understand the complexities of nonconformity and to identify effective interventions.


Baglioni, A.J., & Apryee, J. (2010). The causes and consequences of nonconformity. American Psychologist, 65(3), 180-191.

Cloninger, C.R., & Swann, A.C. (2009). Self-acceptance and nonconformity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(3), 583-594.

Kirkwood, S. (2014). Reducing nonconformity: Strategies for schools and communities. The Journal of Educational Research, 107(4), 264-271.

Stern, C., & West, D.M. (2017). Nonconformity and civil disobedience: A review of the literature. Journal of Social Issues, 73(3), 554-571.

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