NONDECLARATIVE MEMORY

Nondeclarative Memory: A Brief Overview

Nondeclarative memory, sometimes referred to as implicit memory, is a type of memory that enables us to acquire and retain new information without conscious effort or awareness. This memory is characterized by its automatic and effortless nature, as well as its lack of conscious access. Nondeclarative memory is acquired and retrieved via associative processes that occur without our conscious awareness, and it is distinct from declarative memory, which involves conscious memory of facts and events.

Nondeclarative memory can be further divided into two sub-types: procedural memory and priming. Procedural memory is the ability to acquire and retain skills, such as typing, cycling, and playing a musical instrument. Priming refers to the ability to recognize and respond to familiar stimuli, such as words or images. Priming can be either explicit or implicit; explicit priming involves conscious recognition of the stimuli, while implicit priming occurs without conscious awareness.

Nondeclarative memory is believed to be mediated by the hippocampus, a structure located in the temporal lobe of the brain. Studies have shown that damage to the hippocampus can lead to deficits in both procedural and priming memory. In addition, recent research has suggested that nondeclarative memory is related to the dopamine system, which is involved in reward-seeking behaviors.

The study of nondeclarative memory has important implications for our understanding of learning and memory. It has provided insight into how we acquire and retain new information, as well as how we respond to familiar stimuli. Further research into this type of memory may reveal new strategies for improving memory.

References

Eichenbaum, H., & Cohen, N. J. (2001). From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection: Memory Systems of the Brain. Oxford University Press.

Gaffan, D., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (1997). The role of the hippocampus in memory: A review. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 352(1360), 1521-1532.

Gruenewald, T. L., & Goschke, T. (2004). Implicit learning and memory: A review of neuropsychological findings. In R. F. Pohl (Ed.), Cognitive science: An introduction to the study of mind (pp. 355–387). Cambridge University Press.

Squire, L. R. (1992). Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychological Review, 99(2), 195-231.

Zahrt, J., Taylor, J. R., Mathews, G. C., & Arnsten, A. F. (1997). Dopamine receptors in the mechanism of cognitive deficits produced by stress and aging. Behavioral Neuroscience, 111(6), 1351–1359.

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