T-GROUP: Definition, History, and References

T-Group, or training group, is a form of group therapy or experiential learning which originated in the 1940s. It is a form of experiential learning which focuses on the interpersonal dynamics between the group members. The primary aim of T-Group is to help participants better understand their own and other people’s behavior in a group setting.


T-Group is defined as a form of group psychotherapy or experiential learning which focuses on the interpersonal dynamics between the group members. It is an experiential learning approach which involves learning by doing, and is based on the idea that participants learn best by actively participating in the group experience and discussing their reactions in a safe environment. In a T-Group, participants are encouraged to observe and reflect on their own behavior, as well as the behavior of others in the group.


T-Group was developed in the 1940s by Kurt Lewin, a social psychologist. Lewin was interested in group dynamics and believed that individuals could learn more about themselves and their relationships with others by participating in a group setting. He was also interested in understanding how people interact in groups, and how their behavior is affected by the group setting.

Lewin first developed the concept of T-Group in the 1940s, and it was later refined and developed further by other researchers in the 1950s and 1960s. The T-Group method was further developed and applied to a variety of different settings, such as organizational development and therapeutic settings.


Lewin, K. (1948). Resolving social conflicts: Selected papers on group dynamics. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Shaw, M. E., & Costanzo, M. (Eds.). (1991). Introduction to small groups: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Random House.

Gilligan, C., & Price, J. (1993). Meeting at the crossroads: Women’s psychology and girls’ development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Burke, W. W. (1988). Organization development: A process of learning and changing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Yalom, I. D. (1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (4th ed.). New York: Basic Books.

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