TOPICAL APPLICATION

Introduction
Topical application is a method of delivering a drug to the body by applying it directly to the skin. This technique has been used for many centuries to treat a variety of medical conditions, and is now widely used in the world of modern medicine. It is a convenient, safe and effective way of delivering medication to the body, as it avoids the potential for adverse effects associated with oral and intravenous administration. In this article, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of topical application, the types of drugs that can be topically applied, and how the use of topical application is changing with the development of new technologies.

Advantages
The main advantage of topical application is that it is an effective way of delivering medication to the body without the risk of systemic side effects or toxicity. The drug is applied directly to the area of treatment, meaning that only the affected area is affected, and other parts of the body are not exposed to the medication. This also means that the amount of medication needed for a therapeutic effect is much lower than with other forms of administration. Additionally, topical application has fewer potential drug interactions than other forms of administration.

Disadvantages
One of the main disadvantages of topical application is that it can take longer to achieve therapeutic effects than with other forms of administration. This is because the drug must pass through the skin before it can reach the target tissue, which can take a significant amount of time. Additionally, some drugs may not be able to penetrate the skin, meaning that they must be administered in a different fashion. Finally, topical application may not be suitable for all patients, as some may be allergic to the ingredients used in topical preparations.

Types of Drugs
Topical application can be used to deliver a wide variety of drugs, including drugs used to treat skin conditions, such as topical antibiotics, antifungals, and steroids. It can also be used to deliver drugs that target other areas of the body, such as antihistamines, local anesthetics, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, topical application is increasingly being used to deliver drugs used to treat systemic conditions, such as hormones, antimalarials, and antiretrovirals.

Changing Use
The use of topical application is changing with the development of new technologies. For example, the use of nanoparticles is allowing drugs to be delivered more effectively to the target tissue, and is enabling the development of more targeted and localized treatments. Additionally, the use of transdermal patches is becoming more popular, as they allow for the sustained delivery of drugs over a period of time.

Conclusion
In conclusion, topical application is a convenient, safe, and effective way of delivering medication to the body. It is being used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, and is increasingly being used to deliver drugs used to treat systemic conditions. Additionally, the use of topical application is changing with the development of new technologies, such as nanoparticles and transdermal patches.

References

Cabezas, L. C., & Garafulic, P. (2018). Update on topical drug delivery systems. International journal of pharmaceutics, 545(2), 612-621.

Kumar, D., & Singh, S. (2019). Topical drug delivery: A review. International Journal of Drug Delivery, 11(1), 377.

Singh, D., Joshi, R., & Chandel, S. (2017). Transdermal drug delivery systems-A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, 6(2), 6-16.

Tiwari, A., & Kaur, G. (2015). Topical drug delivery: A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 31(2), 133-140.

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