Bioecological Model: A Comprehensive Framework for Understanding Human Development
The bioecological model is a comprehensive framework for understanding human development that emphasizes the role of the individual, the environment, and the interaction between the two. Developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner, the bioecological model emphasizes the importance of the relationship between an individual’s biological and environmental contexts in the development of behavior and development. This model has been used to understand a wide variety of developmental processes, from infancy through adulthood.
The bioecological model is composed of four nested contexts, starting with the microsystem, which is the closest environment to the individual. The microsystem includes the immediate people and settings that an individual interacts with, such as family, peers, and school. The mesosystem is the second layer and includes the interactions and relationships between the microsystems, such as a parent’s job and its influence on the family. The third layer is the exosystem, which includes the larger social context that may not directly interact with the individual, but still has an effect on them. Lastly, the macrosystem is the largest layer and includes the largest social structures, such as the culture or the economy.
The bioecological model has been used to understand a wide range of developmental processes, from the physical development of children to the development of mental health and well-being in adulthood. The model emphasizes the importance of the environment and its interaction with the individual in the development of behavior and development. It is also useful in understanding how the different contexts interact to influence development, as well as how different contexts may present different opportunities or risks for individuals.
The bioecological model has been used to inform a variety of research in the fields of psychology, education, and public health. It can be used to understand the effects of poverty, discrimination, and other environmental factors on development. It can also be used to inform interventions and policies to promote positive development and well-being.
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Brofenbrenner, U. (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Sage.
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Lerner, R. M., & Jacobs, J. E. (2013). The bioecological model of human development. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed., pp. 1–18). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.