DEHYDROGENASE

Dehydrogenases, also known as dehydrogenase enzymes, are a class of enzymes involved in the transfer of electrons from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. These enzymes are found in all organisms, from bacteria and fungi to plants and animals. They are important in many biochemical pathways, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Dehydrogenases have been studied for decades and have been used in the biotechnology field for applications such as drug metabolic profiling, cell-based assays, and gene expression profiling.

The structure of dehydrogenases is relatively simple, consisting of several domains, including a catalytic domain and a substrate domain. The catalytic domain contains an active site where the substrate is bound. The active site contains a catalytic triad, consisting of two amino acid residues and a cofactor such as a NADP+ or FAD+. The substrate domain is responsible for the binding of the substrate and the catalytic domain is responsible for the transfer of electrons from the substrate to the acceptor molecule.

Dehydrogenases play an important role in many biochemical pathways, including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid oxidation, and the conversion of acetyl-CoA to citrate. In glycolysis, dehydrogenases are involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate, which is then used to generate energy in the form of ATP. In the pentose phosphate pathway, dehydrogenases are used to convert glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconolactone. In fatty acid oxidation, dehydrogenases are involved in the transfer of electrons from fatty acids to coenzyme A, resulting in the production of acetyl-CoA. In the conversion of acetyl-CoA to citrate, dehydrogenases are involved in the transfer of electrons from acetyl-CoA to oxaloacetate.

Dehydrogenases have also been used in biotechnology applications such as drug metabolic profiling, cell-based assays, and gene expression profiling. Drug metabolic profiling is used to identify the metabolic pathways of drugs and the enzymes involved in their metabolism. Cell-based assays are used to study the effects of drugs on cells in vitro. Gene expression profiling is used to identify the genes that are up- or down-regulated in response to a drug.

In conclusion, dehydrogenases are a class of enzymes that play an important role in many biochemical pathways, including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid oxidation, and the conversion of acetyl-CoA to citrate. They have also been used in biotechnology applications such as drug metabolic profiling, cell-based assays, and gene expression profiling.

References

Chaudhary, U., & Rana, R. (2020). Dehydrogenase Enzymes: Structure, Function and Applications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(22), 8368. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228368

Hirasawa, A., & Shimada, N. (2019). Structural and Mechanistic Characteristics of Dehydrogenase Enzymes. Biomolecules, 9(11), 712. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110712

Khan, S. I., & Chaudhary, M. Z. (2016). Dehydrogenase enzymes: structure, function and applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 91, 656–664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.05.066

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