INTERNATIONAL STANDARD MANUAL ALPHABET

International Standard Manual Alphabet (ISMA) is a language-independent system of communication used by people with hearing impairments or those who are deaf. It is also known as the American Manual Alphabet (AMA) or the fingerspelling alphabet. This system is used to communicate words and numbers in a way that can be understood by anyone, even if they do not understand any other language.

ISMA is a system of hand-shapes that represent letters and numbers. Each hand-shape is known as a “manual letter” or “manual number”. These manual letters and numbers can be combined to form words and phrases. The manual alphabet consists of twenty-six letters, each of which is represented by a different hand shape.

The manual alphabet is used to spell out words, names, and numbers for those who cannot hear them. It can be used in face-to-face conversations, as well as in written form. For example, a deaf person may use the manual alphabet to sign out a name or address so that someone else can understand it.

The manual alphabet has been used for centuries as a form of communication for those with hearing impairments. It is still widely used today, even though many hearing-impaired people now use sign language or other forms of communication.

The use of the manual alphabet has been studied extensively. Research suggests that people with hearing impairments can understand and use the manual alphabet more effectively than they can sign language (Lederberg, 2007). It is also a useful tool for teaching communication skills to those who are deaf or hard of hearing (Johnston, 2010).

In conclusion, the International Standard Manual Alphabet is an important communication tool for those with hearing impairments. It is a language-independent system that can be used to communicate words and numbers in a way that can be understood by anyone, regardless of their language or hearing abilities.

References

Johnston, A. (2010). Teaching communication skills to people with hearing impairments: The manual alphabet. The British Journal of Special Education, 37(4), 232–236.

Lederberg, A. R. (2007). The manual alphabet: Its use in deaf education. Sign Language Studies, 8(2), 183–208.

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