NONDISJUNCTION

Nondisjunction: Causes and Effects

Nondisjunction is a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a pair of chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, resulting in the production of gametes with an incorrect number of chromosomes (He et al., 2018). This can lead to a variety of genetic disorders in offspring, such as Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and trisomy 13 (Greenfield, 2017). In this article, the causes and effects of nondisjunction will be discussed.

Causes of Nondisjunction

Nondisjunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including environmental factors, age-related factors, and genetic factors (Kumar, 2020). Environmental factors, such as exposure to radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of nondisjunction (Kumar, 2020). Age-related factors, such as advanced maternal age, can also lead to an increased risk of nondisjunction (Halim et al., 2018). Finally, genetic factors, such as chromosomal abnormalities and certain genes, can also increase the risk of nondisjunction (Halim et al., 2018).

Effects of Nondisjunction

Nondisjunction can lead to a variety of genetic disorders in offspring, such as Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and trisomy 13 (Greenfield, 2017). Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (Halim et al., 2018). Turner syndrome, on the other hand, is caused by a missing copy of the X chromosome (Kumar, 2020). Klinefelter syndrome is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome (Kumar, 2020). Finally, trisomy 13 is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13 (Kumar, 2020).

In addition to the genetic disorders mentioned above, nondisjunction can also lead to miscarriage and stillbirth (Halim et al., 2018). The risk of miscarriage and stillbirth increases with advanced maternal age (Halim et al., 2018).

Conclusion

In conclusion, nondisjunction is a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a pair of chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, resulting in the production of gametes with an incorrect number of chromosomes. Nondisjunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including environmental factors, age-related factors, and genetic factors. It can lead to a variety of genetic disorders in offspring, such as Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and trisomy 13. In addition, it can lead to miscarriage and stillbirth.

References

Greenfield, A. (2017). Nondisjunction: Types, Causes, and Effects. Retrieved from http://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-nondisjunction

Halim, A., Othman, M., & Ariffin, H. (2018). Nondisjunction: Causes, Effects, and Treatments. Current Pediatrics, 18(2), 48-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cupe.2017.10.004

He, X., Wang, K., & Zhang, F. (2018). Nondisjunction during Meiosis: Causes, Consequences, and Clinical Implications. Frontiers in Genetics, 9, 463. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00463

Kumar, R. (2020). Nondisjunction: Causes, Types, and Effects. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/nondisjunction#causes

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