OCULOGYRIC SPASM, OCULOMOTOR APRAXIA

Oculogyric spasm and oculomotor apraxia are neurological disorders characterized by involuntary eye movements, most commonly upward and inward, followed by an inability to move the eyes in any direction. Oculogyric spasm is an involuntary and prolonged contraction of the ocular muscles which cause the eyes to roll up and remain fixed in an upward position. Oculomotor apraxia is an inability to voluntarily move the eyes in any direction due to disruption of the pathways in the brain that control eye movement.

Oculogyric spasm is associated with a variety of neurological disorders, including seizures, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. It can also be caused by a reaction to certain medications, such as antipsychotics and anticonvulsants. Treatment typically includes discontinuing or changing the offending medications, as well as controlling any underlying neurological disorder. In cases where medications are not the cause, botulinum toxin injections may be used to relax the ocular muscles and reduce spasms.

Oculomotor apraxia is often associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. It can also be caused by strokes or head injuries. Treatment for oculomotor apraxia typically involves physical therapy and eye exercises to help improve eye movement. In addition, medications such as levodopa or carbidopa may help to improve eye movements in some individuals.

In conclusion, oculogyric spasm and oculomotor apraxia are two distinct neurological disorders characterized by involuntary eye movements and an inability to move the eyes in any direction. Both disorders can cause significant impairments to daily functioning and therefore require prompt diagnosis and treatment.

References

Bloem, B. R., & Hallett, M. (2020). Oculogyric spasm. Movement Disorders, 35(1), 10-17.

Giraud, P., & Vuillaume, I. (2016). Oculomotor Apraxia: a review. Frontiers in Neurology, 7, 1-9.

Lang, A. E. (2016). Oculogyric spasm: A review. Neurology, 87(18), 1883-1888.

Reeves, A., & Lang, A. E. (2011). Oculomotor apraxia: A review. Movement Disorders, 26(14), 2532-2541.

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