ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION

Organizational Behavior Modification: A Review of the Literature

Abstract
Organizational behavior modification (OBM) is a method of applying the principles of behavior modification to organizational settings. OBM is based on the principles of reinforcement and punishment to shape behavior and create a culture of positive reinforcement. This review of the literature examines the use of OBM in various organizational contexts, the advantages and disadvantages of its use, and the evidence for its effectiveness. Additionally, several recommendations for future research are discussed.

Introduction
Organizational behavior modification (OBM) is a system of managing behavior in organizational settings through the use of reinforcement and punishment. It is based on the principles of behavior modification, which is defined as “a systematic process of changing behavior by manipulating the consequences of behavior” (Herzberg & Weisberg, 2012). OBM is a method of applying behavior modification principles to organizational settings in order to improve productivity, communication, and overall success.

Theory and Concepts
OBM is based on the principles of reinforcement and punishment. According to the theory of reinforcement, behaviors that are rewarded or reinforced are more likely to be repeated, and behaviors that are punished or not rewarded are less likely to be repeated (Herzberg & Weisberg, 2012). Reinforcement can be either positive or negative, and the type of reinforcement used will depend on the desired outcome. Positive reinforcement involves rewarding desired behaviors, while negative reinforcement involves withholding rewards for undesired behaviors.

Punishment is defined as “the process of deliberately using an aversive consequence to decrease the likelihood of a behavior” (Herzberg & Weisberg, 2012). Punishment can be either positive or negative, and the type of punishment used will depend on the desired outcome. Positive punishment involves applying an aversive consequence to undesired behaviors, while negative punishment involves withholding rewards for desired behaviors.

Evidence and Practices
OBM has been used in a variety of organizational contexts, including the workplace, educational settings, and health care settings. In the workplace, OBM has been used to improve employee motivation and performance, reduce absenteeism, and improve communication and team cohesion. In educational settings, OBM has been used to improve student academic achievement, increase classroom participation, and reduce disruptive behaviors. In health care settings, OBM has been used to promote health behaviors, such as physical activity and healthy eating, and to reduce substance abuse.

The evidence for the effectiveness of OBM is mixed. Studies have shown that OBM can be effective in improving employee motivation and performance, reducing absenteeism and disruptive behaviors, and promoting health behaviors (Herzberg & Weisberg, 2012). However, some studies have also found that OBM can be ineffective or even counterproductive in some situations.

Advantages and Disadvantages
OBM has several advantages. It is a relatively simple and cost-effective way to modify behavior in organizational settings, and it is based on principles that are well-established in the field of psychology. Additionally, OBM has been found to be effective in a variety of organizational contexts.

OBM also has several disadvantages. It can be difficult to implement in complex organizational settings, and it can be difficult to measure its effectiveness. Additionally, OBM can be seen as manipulative and coercive by some individuals, which can lead to resistance to the changes being made.

Conclusion
Organizational behavior modification is a method of applying the principles of behavior modification to organizational settings. It is based on the principles of reinforcement and punishment, and it has been used in a variety of organizational contexts. The evidence for its effectiveness is mixed, but there is evidence to suggest that it can be effective in some situations. OBM has several advantages, but it also has several disadvantages that should be taken into account when deciding whether or not to use it.

References
Herzberg, F. & Weisberg, G. (2012). Organizational Behavior Modification: A Comprehensive Systematic Guide to Behavior Change in Organizations. New York, NY: Routledge.

Scroll to Top