Self-concept Tests: Definition, History, and Research

Self-concept tests are psychological tests used to measure an individual’s self-image and self-perception. The construct of self-concept is often used to measure the psychological adjustment of individuals, and it is a central factor in a person’s psychological functioning. It is broadly defined as a person’s understanding of themselves in terms of their physical, psychological, and social characteristics. Self-concept tests are used to measure an individual’s self-esteem, self-worth, and self-image.

The history of self-concept tests can be traced back to the early 20th century. The first self-concept test was developed in 1923 by psychologist Charles Spearman, who used factor analysis to measure an individual’s self-image. Since then, many tests have been developed to measure an individual’s self-concept, including the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES).

Research on self-concept tests has revealed that an individual’s self-perception and self-image are related to both psychological and physical health. Studies have found that individuals with higher self-esteem have better mental health outcomes and are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors. Additionally, research has shown that individuals with higher self-concept scores have better physical health outcomes, such as lower levels of stress and greater life satisfaction.

Self-concept tests can be used to assess an individual’s psychological adjustment and well-being, as well as to identify areas of improvement. Self-concept tests can also be used to assess the efficacy of interventions aimed at improving an individual’s self-image. Therefore, self-concept tests are important tools in the assessment and treatment of psychological disorders.


Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Spearman, C. (1923). The nature of intelligence and the principles of cognition. London: Macmillan.

Stevens, J. E., & Schutte, N. S. (2019). The role of self-esteem in physical health: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 23(3), 257-285. doi:10.1177/1088868319858100

Trzesniewski, K. H., Donnellan, M. B., & Robins, R. W. (2003). Stability and change in self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84(3), 566-575. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.3.566

Scroll to Top