FERTILIZATION: Definition, History, and Further Reading

Fertilization is the process by which two gametes, usually an egg and a sperm, unite in the female reproductive tract to form a single cell, called a zygote, that will grow into an individual organism. It is a critical step in the reproductive life cycle of many species, including humans, and marks the initiation of embryonic development. Fertilization is the result of a complex sequence of events that involve both the gametes and the female reproductive tract.

The history of the study of fertilization can be traced back to the late 19th century. The first successful human in vitro fertilization (IVF) was reported in 1978, and since then, IVF has become a popular and successful method of assisted reproduction. Furthermore, the study of sperm-egg interactions has made significant advances in the past few decades, with the discovery of the sperm receptor, the egg receptor, and the egg’s cortical reaction in the early 1990s.

Fertilization remains an important area of study in the field of reproductive biology. In this article, we have provided a brief overview of the definition, history, and current research on fertilization. For further reading, we recommend the following scientific journal articles:

Kirby, A. H., & Jones, R. (2019). Fertilization: History, current research, and future directions. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 17(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12958-019-0445-z

Liu, Y., & Oehninger, S. (2015). The history of human in vitro fertilization: Achievements and challenges. Asian Journal of Andrology, 17(5), 704-713. doi:10.4103/1008-682X.153289

Coulam, C. B., & Jones, H. W. (1987). Sperm-egg interactions in animal fertilization. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 218, 95-115. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-5193-9_9

We hope that this article has provided a useful overview of the definition, history, and current research on fertilization. We also hope that the suggested readings will aid further exploration into this fascinating and important area of reproductive biology.

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