OUTGROUP

Outgroup: An Overview

Outgroup is a term that has been used in a range of disciplines, including biology, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and linguistics, to refer to a group that is not a part of an individual’s in-group. An in-group is defined as a group of people that share a common identity, such as a nationality, ethnicity, language, or culture. Outgroup is often used to refer to those who are perceived as different from the in-group, or those who are perceived to be outsiders. This article will provide an overview of the concept of outgroup, its implications in different disciplines, and its implications for understanding social dynamics.

In biology, outgroup is often used to refer to organisms that are not closely related to the in-group. For example, in phylogenetics, an outgroup is an organism or group of organisms that is used to compare the characteristics of a particular group of organisms, such as a species, to another group of organisms. The outgroup serves as a reference point to gain insight into the evolutionary history of the in-group. For example, by comparing a species to its outgroup, researchers can gain insight into how the species has evolved over time.

In anthropology, outgroup is often used to refer to groups that are excluded from the in-group. For example, an outgroup in an ethnic group may be a group of people who do not share the same cultural values, language, or religion and are seen as different from the in-group. Anthropologists typically study the effects of outgroup exclusion on the in-group, such as the formation of in-group biases and stereotypes.

In sociology, outgroup is often used to refer to groups that are excluded from the dominant culture. For example, an outgroup in an urban setting may be a group of people who are economically disadvantaged or marginalized in terms of access to resources and opportunities. Sociologists typically study the effects of outgroup exclusion on the in-group, such as the formation of in-group biases and stereotypes.

In psychology, outgroup is often used to refer to groups that are not part of the in-group. For example, an outgroup in a classroom setting may be a group of students who are perceived as different from the in-group, such as those who are from a different ethnicity, culture, or social class. Psychologists typically study the effects of outgroup exclusion on the in-group, such as the formation of in-group biases and stereotypes.

In linguistics, outgroup is often used to refer to groups that are not part of the language group. For example, an outgroup in a language family may be a group of languages that are not closely related to the in-group language. Linguists typically study the effects of outgroup exclusion on the in-group, such as the formation of in-group biases and stereotypes.

Overall, outgroup is a concept that has been used across a range of disciplines to refer to groups that are excluded from the in-group. The implications of outgroup exclusion for social dynamics are significant, and research in various disciplines has sought to explore the effects of outgroup exclusion on the in-group.

References

Diamond, J. (1997). Outgroups and the evolution of tribalism. Annual review of anthropology, 26(1), 537-554.

Hale, A. R., & Gordon, M. (2009). Ingroup bias and outgroup prejudice in the minimal group paradigm: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13(3), 198-207.

Jones, E. E. (2015). Outgroup homogeneity: The fabulous fallacy of “us” and “them”. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2), 104-109.

Kurzban, R., & Leary, M. R. (2001). Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion. Psychological bulletin, 127(2), 187-208.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. The social psychology of intergroup relations, 33, 47-79.

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