Obesity is a major public health issue with a growing prevalence across the world. It is defined as an excessive accumulation of body fat and is associated with a variety of adverse health consequences, including an elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers (WHO, 2020).

In the United States, the prevalence of obesity has been rising steadily since the 1980s and is currently estimated to affect around 39.8% of adults and 18.5% of children (Ogden et al., 2016). The primary cause of obesity is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended over a period of time (WHO, 2020). This imbalance is caused by a combination of factors, including sedentary lifestyle, genetic predisposition, unhealthy dietary habits, and sociocultural influences (Ludwig et al., 2001).

Treatment of obesity should be tailored to the individual and, in general, involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity, improving dietary quality, and changing behaviors (WHO, 2020). Pharmacological and surgical interventions may be recommended for those who fail to make progress through lifestyle modifications alone (Jensen, 2014).

Obesity is a complex condition that requires a multifaceted approach to successful management. It is important for healthcare providers to recognize the risk factors associated with obesity and to provide timely and effective interventions. Furthermore, public health initiatives should be aimed at promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors and reducing the prevalence of obesity in the population.


Jensen, M. D. (2014). Pharmacologic and surgical management of obesity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 43(1), 1-18.

Ludwig, D. S., Peterson, K. E., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2001). Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: A prospective, observational analysis. The Lancet, 357(9255), 505-508.

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Lawman, H. G., Fryar, C. D., Kruszon-Moran, D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2016). Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 through 2013-2014. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(21), 2292-2299.

WHO (2020). Obesity and overweight. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

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